Thousands of Fossil Fuel "Observers" Attended Climate Negotiations - UNFCCC Data 2005-2018 COP1-COP24 - Climate Investigations Center

Thousands of Fossil Fuel “Observers” Attended Climate Negotiations – UNFCCC Data 2005-2018 COP1-COP24



The collection of Global Climate Coalition (GCC) documents we compiled and released by CIC this April reveal that the organization had a singular focus, slowing down or derailing the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations process and “tracking” the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), undermining the scientists’ message of urgency.  In the GCC meeting minutes and press releases exhibit numerous interventions at the UN meetings along with their strategies, budgets and debriefs.

CIC catalogued every fossil fuel company and trade group delegate that who ever attended UNFCCC meetings. This research debuted in an Agence-France Press AFP piece and on Yahoo News this week during a UNFCCC meeting in Bonn, Germany.

Non-governmental organizations which include the GCC (or Greenpeace) must gain accreditation with the UN in order to send “observers” to the meetings. Both the individual corporate members of the GCC (e.g. Exxon) and the trade association members of the GCC (e.g. the American Petroleum Institute) sent large delegations to UNFCCC meetings. Employees of oil companies, electric utilities, auto companies and corporate trade associations wore UNFCCC badges that obscured their true corporate employers to attendees, national delegates and media at the meeting.  

For example, we have an International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) document from 1996 found in the Shell document collection we released a year ago – a report back to IPIECA on the second UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP2). The report details the team who went to the meeting: employees from Shell, Mobil, Exxon, Texaco, BP, Chevron, Total, ENI who attended the COP wearing a mix of badges from IPIECA, the GCC, the International Chamber of Commerce and the World Economic Forum.

The data compiled stretches from COP1 in 1995 to COP24 in December 2018 and paints a picture of corporate attendance at UNFCCC meetings over these years.  Some corporations such as Exxon, Shell and Chevron and trade associations such as Edison Electric Institute have attended every COP from the beginning with at one (or more) staff person on an accredited trade association’s delegation.  

The same individuals from corporations and trade associations and some of the same people that went with GCC or IPIECA badges over the past two decades continue to do so, wearing different badges and stalking the halls and influencing governments at the talks  Some individuals have worn three or more different badges over this time period.

The GCC used this access to monitor the progress of negotiations, apply pressure where and when they could, and utilize the United States and other friendly. national delegations as puppets.

Their goal in the 1990s was to slow the IPCC science process, knowing science is the engine that drives the negotiations and also to derail the negotiations completely if possible. More recently, these companies and corporate associations try to steer the talks toward false solutions that will allow the fossil fuel industry to continue business as usual.

Key Findings:

Below is a tally of the total number of delegates from 1995 to 2018. Note, this is the total number of times people were sent, with some individuals attending many COPs and other meetings. These numbers can be seen as a representation of the corporation or trade association’s relative prioritization of the UNFCCC process.  

  • Trade associations that count fossil fuel corporations as members have sent more than 6,400 delegates to the climate talks since 1995 (See Table below)
  • Groups with the highest attendance overall:
    • International Emissions Trading Association: 1,817
    • World Business Council for Sustainable Development: 1,266
    • International Chamber of Commerce: 1,145
  • The corporations previously represented by the controversial GCC continued to attend in high numbers with other trade associations. Since 1995…
    • Exxon sent at least 20 delegates
    • Shell sent at least 137 delegates
    • BP sent at least 26 delegates
    • Chevron sent at least 29 delegates
    • BHP Billiton sent at least 9 delegates
UNFCCC Accredited Trade Group Attendees
1995-2018
International Emissions Trading Association1817
World Business Council for Sustainable Development1266
International Chamber of Commerce1145
Business Council for Sustainable Energy490
International Climate Change Partnership 287
Internation Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association258
Edison Electric Institute 201
Global Climate Coalition162
BusinessEurope 138
International Gas Union91
Carbon Capture and Storage Association80
European Chemical Industry Council67
International Union of Producers and Distribution66
Business for Social Responsiility65
Competitive Enterprise Institute52
The Climate Council46
Chamber of Commerce of the U.S.34
American Chemical Society31
Business Roundtable31
Electric Power Research Institute31
Business Council of Australia29
World Coal Institute 25
Asociacion Espanola Del Gas20
National Mining Association20
Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy13
TOTAL6465

Persons of Interest:

Eric Holdsworth: Edison Electric Institute

Brian Flannery: Exxon’s denier on the inside

  • Flannery worked for ExxonMobil for 31 years before retiring in 2011. 
  • While with Exxon, Flannery attended almost every meeting of the climate negotiations since COP1, registering with a number of different fossil fuel industry trade associations including the US Chamber of Commerce, the International Chamber of Commerce and IPIECA.
  • Flannery has a long and well-documented track record of climate denial
  • Flannery has attended nearly every UNFCCC meeting, registering under a number of different fossil fuel industry trade associations. Since his retirement from ExxonMobil, Flannery has attended UNFCCC meetings registered under Resources for the Future, a think tank funded by major pollutersincluding Chevron, BP, numerous extractive corporations and a number of automobile corporations and trade associations. 
  • Flannery has attended a total of 44 UNFCCC conferences as a representative of the following entities:
INTERNATIONAL PETROLEUM INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION
INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
IUCN – INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE

Also of interest:

  • Tanya Morrison of Royal Dutch Shell has been attending since 2010 under the Carbon Capture and Storage Association and the International Chamber of Commerce           
  • Arthur Lee of Chevron, has attended UNFCCC meetings since 1999, predominately with IPIECA. Arthur Lee has worked for or with Chevron for many years on climate change. He has attended 23 UNFCCC conferences as a representative of the following entities:
INTERNATIONAL PETROLEUM INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION
ASOCIACION REGIONAL DE EMPRESAS DE PETROLEO Y GAS NATURAL EN LATINOAMERICA Y EL CARIBE
WORLD BUSINESS COUNCIL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
INTERNATIONAL PETROLEUM INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION
IUCN – INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
WORLD BUSINESS COUNCIL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
INTERNATIONAL EMISSIONS TRADING ASSOCIATION
INTERNATIONAL CRYOSPHERE CLIMATE INITIATIVE

ALL GLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION DELEGATES 1995-2001


YEARCOP#First NameLast NameCompanyCOP Registration Organization/Badge
1995COP1DavidBanksAmerican Petroleum InstituteGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1PaulCicioDow ChemicalGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1RobertColeKaiser Aluminum CorporationGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1ChristopherDegnenFord Motor CompanyGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1GaryEhligExxon CorporationGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1David FinneganAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1GordonFryAuminum AssociationGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1BronsonGardnerGlobal Climate Coalition (no affiliation listed)Global Climate Coalition
1995COP1JimGreenMobil CorporationGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1Roy HammeDuke PowerGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1DaleHeydlauffAmerican Electric Power Service CorporatonGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1Erik KHoldsworthGlobal Climate CoalitionGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1ThomasKirlinAmerican Petroleum InstituteGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1ElizabethLunneyGlobal Climate CoalitionGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1C.V.MathaiArizona Public ServiceGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1RobertMcFaddenAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1JohnMcManusAmerican Electric Power Service CorporatonGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1JoshuaMetzGlobal Climate CoalitionGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1WilliamMulliganChevronGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1CharlesSharpAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1JohnShlaesGlobal Climate CoalitionGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1JamesTaylorMobil CorporationGlobal Climate Coalition
1995COP1PorterWomeldorffIllinois Power CompanyGlobal Climate Coalition
1996COP2LeonardBernsteinMobil Oil corporationGlobal Climate Coalition
1996COP2RobertHainesMobil CorporationGlobal Climate Coalition
1996COP2RufusYerxaMobil CorporationGlobal Climate Coalition
1996COP2LauraArmstrongAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2DavidBanksAmerican Petroleum InstituteGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2SteveBarryAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2MichaelCanesAmerican Petroleum InstituteGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2MaryCanesAmerican Petroleum InstituteGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2BuddyEllerSouthern CompanyGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2David FinneganAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2GordonFryAluminum AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2BrosnonGardnerGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2Roy HammeDuke PowerGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2EricHoldsworthGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2ThomasKirlinAmerican Petroleum InstituteGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2RobertMcFaddenAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2RobertMossAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2WilliamMulliganChevronGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2RogerNelsonBHPGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2AlexOramGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2JeneRobinsonIllinois Power CompanyGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2CharlesSharpAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2JohnShlaesGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2MarieTakemotoChrystler CorporationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1996COP2LizWalkerGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3JeffAllisonGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3LauraArmstrongAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3David O.BanksAmerican Petroleum InstituteGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3LeonardBernsteinMobil Oil CorporationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3Steven K BerryAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3Robert JBluhmAir Transport AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3MaryBrooksGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3JohnBuscherGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3TomCalcagniGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3JamesCicconiGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3TomCooneyGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3Josephine CooperGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3MitchDubenskyGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3Gary FEhligExxon Research & Engineering Co.Global Climate Coaliton
1997COP3DavidFinneganAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3JamesFreelGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3Gordon HFryAluminum AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3James EGreenGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3Ronert WHainesMobil CorporationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3Erik KHoldsworthGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3EthanHolmesGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3KarenHoltschneiderGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3LoisJohnstonTexaco Inc.Global Climate Coaliton
1997COP3BruceJostenGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3AllenKellyGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3RichardKetlerAir Transport AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3TomKirlinGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3Katherine S.KirlinGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3BettyKitzGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3Charles KitzChrystler CorporationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3MaureenKoetzGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3HowardLewisGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3CathyMarshallGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3TimothyMcBrideChrystler CorporationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3KatherineMcBrideGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3GailMcDonaldGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3RobertMcFaddenAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3YoshimoriMiyaharaGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3DavidMontgomeryInternational Chamber of CommerceGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3JayMorganGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3KenMorinoGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3BobMossGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3WilliamO’KeefeAmerican Petroleum Institute (not listed on UNFCCC doc)Global Climate Coaliton
1997COP3JamesPasekGeneral MotorsGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3LinoPiedraGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3TerryPritchettGeneral MotorsGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3DonaldRheemE. Bruce Harrison CompanyGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3MichaelRuckerEdison Electric InstituteGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3CharlesSharpAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3PatriciaSharpGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3SusanSkerkerGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3NicoleSolomonGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3BruceSteinerGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3Bruce StewerGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3DennisStoleGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3MarieTakemotoChrystler CorporationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3AkiraWakasugiGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3RobertWarrenAir Transport AssociationGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3MikeWascomGlobal Climate Coaliton
1997COP3Jim WilliamsGlobal Climate Coaliton
1998COP4DavidBanksGlobal Climate CoalitionGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4Leonard BernsteinMobil CorporationGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4LauraCatalanoGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4William ChernowitzMobil CorporationGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4David FinneganAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4RobertHainesGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4EricHoldsworthGlobal Climate CoalitionGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4RussellJonesAmerican Petroleum InstituteGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4Charles KitzChrysler CorporationGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4BillKovacsUS Chamber of CommerceGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4Tom MarxGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4RobertMcFaddenAmerican Automobile Manufacturers AssociationGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4Isabel MirandoMobil CorporationGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4JayMorganFord Motor CompanyGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4William O’KeefeAmerican Petroleum InstituteGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4Terry PritchettGeneral MotorsGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4MichaelShanahanAmerican Petroleum InstituteGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4Susan SkerkerFord Motor CompanyGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4Scott SolomonGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4BruceSteinerAmerican Iron & Steel InstituteGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4KarenStephensonGlobal Climate Coalition
1998COP4MartinZimmermanFord Motor CompanyGlobal Climate Coalition
1999COP5David HOLMESNational Mining AssociationGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Don TURKMobil CorporationGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Donald HILLEBRANDGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Gary EVANSNational Rural Electric Cooperative AssociationGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Gerald ESPERGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Glenn KELLYGCC, Executive DirectorGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5 John WETZELAssociation of American RailroadsGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Michael SHANAHANAmerican Petroleum InstituteGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Robert MCFADDENGHG AssociatesGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Russell JONESAmerican Petroleum InstituteGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Tom MARXGeneral MotorsGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5William O’KEEFEAmerican Petroleum InstituteGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Karen HULMEGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5David FINNEGANMayer, Brown & Platt, ConsulantGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Eric HOLDSWORTHDeputy DirectorGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Mary KENKELEdison Electric Institute, Director, Media RelationsGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Jim GREENMobil Corporation, Government RelationsGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5David BANKSManager, Public AffairsGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Terry PRITCHETTGeneral Motors, ManagerGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Byron MCCORMICKFord Motor Company, Senior Regulations Engineer, Vehicle Environmental EngineeringGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
1999COP5Bill GOULDProgramme ManagerGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
2000COP6Glenn KELLY GCC, Executive DirectorGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
2000COP6Michael SHANAHAN American Petroleum InstituteGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
2000COP6Robert H. MCFADDEN GHG AssociatesGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
2000COP6William O’KEEFE American Petroleum Institute, Executive Vice President GLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
2000COP6Phil COONEYAmerican Petroleum InstituteGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
2000COP6Russell JONESAmerican Petroleum InstituteGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
2000COP6Eric K. HOLDSWORTHDeputy DirectorGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
2000COP6Gary R. EVANSNational Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Strategic Planning and AnalysisGLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION
2001COP7Glenn KELLY GCC, Executive DirectorGlobal Climate Coalition (GCC)
2001COP7Robert GRECO American Petroleum InstituteGlobal Climate Coalition (GCC)
2001COP7Robert H. MCFADDEN GHG AssociatesGlobal Climate Coalition (GCC)

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